Government schemes in India reach far – but government jobs do not
The Indian state outsources a range of permanent social programmes to local NGOs. The argument is that NGOs reach ‘the field’ and to a certain extent represent civil society, but it is also a way for the government to pursue its policies without extending the state apparatus, including job security, decent salaries, and pensions for employees. Another consequence of outsourcing social responsibilities is that NGO work necessarily become more standardised social work and less activism.
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Who votes for Modi?
Extremist Hindu nationalism, big business and India’s answer to an elected ‘strongman’ like Trump, Duterte and Bolsonaro. There is no doubt about what Modi stands for if one reads critical Indian journalism or much international press about India. But in a small town in Northern India, which will vote with the rest of the country in April and May, there is a very different account of the incumbent prime minister. Here, Modi and his party, Bharatiya Janta Party (BJP), are synonymous with a positive narrative of development and strong leadership.
Read the second article here.